So I’m a couple of weeks behind on my schedule for my studies. So i’m hoping this week I will be able to catch up. I went away on holiday for a week to Italy in October and tried to complete some drawings to co-incide with assignment 3. I was hoping to grasp some inspiration. I felt it worked well after studying the Renaissance period.
Fig 6. Cathedral (2016)
Fig 2. Crypt Wall (2016)
Fig 5. Church (2016)
Fig 4. Cathedral Ceiling (2016)
Fig 3. Crypt Wall 2 (2016)
Fig 1. Crypt Ceiling (2016)
So it wasn’t very successful. I didn’t complete many drawings but I took some photographs to work from.
I also went to Dublin for a couple of days and visited some art galleries over there.
I thought this panorama shot would be quite interesting in relation to my original assignment 2 thought process and the upcoming assignment 3 topic, landscapes.
I am now going to finally start some drawing!!!!! First stop – one drawing a day – this is something my tutor recommended I do to develop my skills. I think this will also keep me engaged with the course but also with drawing as I really find it hard to sit down and concentrate on a drawing. I will be using my new book to help me through this and experiment with different techniques. After I have completed my drawing I will then continue with assignment 3. Phew!
After researching landscape artists that were e recommended I found that artist George Shaw had recently had residency within the National Gallery in London and there was his exhibition on at present. I decided to go and see his work as I was quite intrigued in his thoughts and process and wanted to know more. I’m so glad I did.
National Gallery Visit – Thursday 20th October
George Shaw has always loved the National Gallery and would frequently visit as a young child. His work is inspired by the themes of the paintings in the national gallery from artists such as; Constable and Poussin, which whilst he had his residency at the gallery, created initial sketches from their works. He finds a relationship featuring violence, sex and drunkenness between his work and the works of artists’ work in the gallery. His work reflects more of a modern reaction to how people may behave in today’s society. Shaw has a great interest in Christian imagery, which draws his attention to the work in the gallery.
I really liked his study called ‘hanging around’. A landscape without figures.
I reordered my thoughts as I walked around Shaw’s work:
I was very surprised and intrigued in my dismissal towards the national gallery as I was had found it ‘boring’ but Shaw makes me re-think my initial reaction to the paintings within the gallery. He creates a modern day twist that I otherwise thought would still include mythical creatures and so on – but it is so different to that.
I am keen to create a piece of work much like Shaw’s (‘Hanging Around’) with ink. I would like to try a very similar approach. It links to; silhouette works, my choice of media (black ink), simple drawings, make a light wash in the background first.
He created very quick sketches around the gallery of other artists work – NOTE: need to take a sketchbook around with me when I travel
He also created works, which I believe, very much elate to the cubist style, or similar.
I noticed for his tree studies, he focused on tree trunks and the detail they hold – something that maybe I could pick up on in my studies. He eludes the viewer of the danger and mystical feeling of being in the woods and he makes the viewer wanting to know more.
he creates images within his paintings of; violence, sex and disillusions, and he’s graphic and obvious about it in doing so.
I asked myself some questions about his work:
How does it link to mythical and renaissance paintings that he says he gets his inspiration from?
I know it relates to sex but why not just paint people having sex in the scene that you have created? I developed my own answer to this – I learnt that the whole idea was to extract figures from the painting/scene and then as I turned to the next painting I found a male figure in the painting, urinating up against a tree.
His studio sketches show a lot of figure drawing and sketches based upon mythological poses.
Within the exhibition there was a video interview of Shaw and of his studio work –
Below are some quotes, from Shaw, that stood out for me;
‘paintings of trees are much more exciting that looking at a tree’
‘its the national gallery – bit like playing for England’ – for him to have been given the residency at the national gallery was the most amazing thing ever.
Shaw was nominated for the Turner prize in 2011 for his photorealist landscapes. I learnt a lot about the paintings within the gallery are full of innuendos themselves, just like Shaw’s work, but is harder for me to interpret them, something I had never noticed before. This made me understand slightly more about the relationship Shaw’s work had with the work in the gallery. The piece that Shaw pointed out in the film was ‘Actaeon’ by Titian. He is inspired by the religious, Christian paintings within the gallery. He mentions that a lot of them contain the crucifix and he is intrigued by this.
His main purpose in creating these paintings are to tell a story. He doesn’t pick a beautiful landscape. He chooses to a paint a wood and transforms this in telling its story. Shaw considers the history in the landscape, mainly of adolescent’s learning and developing themselves as individuals. I.e. A wood/forest is a first time for many events – ‘your first fag’, ‘first condom opening experience’, it relates to your childhood – ‘as a kid you want to run in’. Shaw comments on the fact we look past the rubbish and focus on the beauty of nature. He brings your attention to the real life experiences that are found in the woods; such a your first smoke.
His ultimate message was to ‘discover yourself – loose yourself in nature’. He says ‘you, me, everyone has their ‘back’ to nature’ this plays on the idea of coming back into nature rather than being in a gallery.
It was such an eye opening exhibition and really made me get to grips with Shaw’s message that he tries to voice through his works of art. (Shaw. National Gallery, 2016)
Fig 1. Study for hanging around (Landscape without figures (2014)
Fig 2. The Living Dead (2015-16)
Fig 3. The Old Master (unknown)
Shaw, G. (2016) My Back to Nature [Exhibition] London: National Gallery. 11 May – 30 October 2016.
Not allowed to take pictures so got images off internet:
In Fine Art, the term landscape which originates from the dutch word ‘landschap’ (a patch of ground), describes any painting or drawing whose subject is the portrayed of a scenic view. The view depicted may be a real place or imaginary scene. (Visual Arts Cork, s.d)
Enter a captionIn Fine Art, the term landscape which originates from the dutch word ‘landschap’ (a patch of ground), describes any painting or drawing whose subject is the portrayed of a scenic view. The view depicted may be a real place or imaginary scene. (Visual Arts Cork, s.d)
Landscape art and the renaissance
Landscape art wasn’t really noticed as a genre until the renaissance period. It was ranked low in comparison to genres such as history paintings and portrait art. Until the early/mid 16th century, landscape was included in paintings purely as a backdrop. i.e. The Annunciation (1472) by Leonardo Da Vinci.
Distinction between landscape as an ornament and landscape as a the genre is not about the absence of human figures but more about their size and function. When foreground figures take up most of the picture the landscape is mere background. despite Da Vinci’s interest in landscape he never produced a true landscape painting due to the size of human figures he placed in them. In landscape paintings human figures – whether dispersed or in the foreground – exist to indicate scale and evolve the viewers empathy.
Landscape painting in the 18th century continued to develop in response to social and political change of the time. New attitudes to the natural environment emerged and in England distinctive symbolic traditions appeared, reflecting the practice of landscape gardening, seen as the re-ordering of nature to suit aristocratic patrons. Scenic paintings portrayed the harmony of nature and calm in the climate of wealth.
The work of artists such as Richard Wilson (The destruction of Niobe’s Children, 1760)
and Thomas Gainsborough (mr and Mrs Andrews, 1749) demonstrate order in their landscapes.
In France Jean-Antoine Watteau
combined and demonstrated scenery with relationships between people. Her paintings were quite clear and easier to read in comparison to other artist like Jean-Honore Fragonard who produced frothy foliage and clouds.
After the French revolution and napoleonic wars landscape painting became more and more respected as a genre and became one of the most popular types of art. During the 19th century, arguably, the greatest ever landscapes were produced.
During 1802 JMW (Joseph Mallord William) Turner,
Fig 6. Dutch Boats in a Gale (1801)
Fig 7 The Parting of Hero and Leander (1837)
Fig 8. Sun rising through Vapour: Fishermen cleaning and selling Fish (1807)
England’s greatest and most original landscape painter had arrived on the scene. He became the youngest ever member of London’s Royal academy, Turner was a watercolorist up until 1796, when in the 1800’s his scenic views became more dramatic and romantic, both in their subject matter and style of painting. He began to bring historical painting into the genre by painting pictures with historical actions and natural forces. From the 1830’s his landscapes became free with their movement and energy in the piece, focusing on atmospheric effect. In the 1840’s some his paintings became slightly abstract in composition, dissolving into a haze of colour and light. With this skill and style, in using colour and light, he anticipated impressionism.
Turners dramatic artwork was very different to landscape art of his contemporaries. Some examples include: German romantic artist Caspar David Friedrich
Fig 9. Monk by the Sea (1809)
Fig 10. Drifting Clouds (1820)
whose small scale scenic works were full of religious symbolism. (Visual Arts Cork, s.d)
Elements of Renaissance Painting
There are a few elements that are key factors in the development of Renaissance painting. Below are some factors with examples of work throughout the renaissance period.
in Giotto’s Fresco, the building is like a stage set with one side open to the viewer
in Paolo Vcello’s Fresco, the townscape gives an impression of depth.
The depiction of landscape was influenced by the development of linear perspective and the inclusion of detailed landscapes in the background of many Early Netherlandish paintings of the 15th century. Awareness of atmospheric perspective and the observation of the way distant things are affected by light are also made clear in the drawings and paintings.
•Giotto uses a few rocks to give the impression of a mountain setting.
•Paolo Uccello has created a detailed and surreal setting as a stage for many small scenes.
Light or tone in a drawing is simply the lightness and darkness of areas, graded from white to black.Tone became increasingly important to painters of the 15th century, transforming the depiction of three-dimensional space.
•Taddeo Gaddi‘s Annunciation to the Shepherds is the first known large painting of a night scene. The internal light source of the picture is the angel
Thinking of silhouette drawings and stuff. – which (from my visit to the national gallery today) – George Shaw gets inspiration from renaissance paintings.
The knowledge of anatomy was advanced by Leonardo da Vinci’s meticulous dissection of 30 corpses. Leonardo, among others, impressed upon students the necessity of the close observation of life and made the drawing of live models an essential part of a student’s formal study of the art of painting.
•Cimabue‘s Crucifixion, extensively destroyed by flood in 1966, shows the formal arrangement, with curving body and drooping head that was prevalent in late Medieval art. The anatomy is strongly stylised to conform with traditional iconic formula.
•Giotto abandoned the traditional formula and painted from observation.
The observation of nature meant that set forms and symbolic gestures which in Medieval art, and particularly the Byzantine style prevalent in much of Italy, were used to convey meaning, were replaced by the representation of human emotion as displayed by a range of individuals.
•In this Resurrection, Giotto shows the sleeping soldiers with faces hidden by helmets or foreshortened to emphasise the relaxed posture.
Among the preoccupations of artists commissioned to do large works with multiple figures were how to make the subject, usually narrative, easily read by the viewer, natural in appearance and well composed within the picture space.
•Giotto combines three separate narrative elements into this dramatic scene set against the dehumanising helmets of the guards. Judas betrays Jesus to the soldiers by kissing him. The High Priest signals to a guard to seize him. Peter slices the ear off the high priest’s servant as he steps forward to lay hands on Jesus. Five figures dominate the foreground, surrounding Jesus so that only his head is visible. Yet by skilful arrangement of colour and the gestures of the men, Giotto makes the face of Jesus the focal point of the painting.
Richard Wilson was a very talented artist, who was known as a portrait painter. At the age of 36 he went to Italy where he worked in Rome and Naples. He was encouraged by other artists to pursue landscape painting. He returned to London 6 years later as a landscape painter. Back in England, Wilson’s Italian landscapes were somewhat ignored by those who longed for glamorous souvenirs of the classical ground. People at the time seem to take view that Wilson’s landscapes were ‘too near common nature’ to include gods and goddesses, something they saw more valuable.
20th Century landscape art
Landscape art has been defined as a genre within a number of 20th century art movements. In America these include: Precisionism (1920s), American scene painting and Regionalism both focus on urban landscapes – see Edward Hopper – and finally photorealism.
Fig 17. Automat (1927)
Fig 18. Stairway at 48 rue de Lille (1906)
Precisionism – An art movement that was established in the early 1920s. Influence strongly by cubism and futurism, it’s main themes included industrialisation and the modernisation of the American landscape which were sharply defined geometrical forms.
Other movements/forms of art are land/earth art, which uses the environment to allow artists to express their feelings within nature. While landscape painting remains popular, it has developed diverse directions without painting the status it achieved during 19th century. (Visual Arts Cork, s.d)
Land art – Richard Long
Richard Long is well known for his work ‘A Line Made by Walking, 1967’ in which he walked back and forth across the same piece of land in Wiltshire. His work experimented with nature and art that had an impact on the land. Bordering with conceptualism and minimalism, land art began to develop as an art form in the late 1960s in America. The aim of lan art was to make the public aware of mans relationship with the natural world and create thought provoking art work. Land art fuses nature with the creative force of the artist. It reminds the viewer that the natural world is far superior to anything humans have ever created or will create.
It was ancient cultures who first started using earthwork to express themselves. Works by the Nazca Indians, the famous Nazca lines are an example of some land art.
There is a theory of how these lines come about. English explorer Tony Morrison researched the old ways of the people of the Andes mountains. He discovered a tradition of wayside shrines linked by straight pathways. People would move from shrine to shrine to pray and meditate. The symbols may have served as special enclosures for religious ceremonies. There are various other theories which relate to the creation of the lines, for example; surveying techniques, using grids and stakes to create the drawing or that they are connected to water sources in the region.
Other places around the world have found these land art works. Along the pacific coast in the foothills of the Andes mountains there is an etched figure resembling a giant Candelabrum. Archaeologists presume that these figures served as guides for Inca traders.
Principles of land art were similar to these of minimalism and conceptualism, especially in relation of how objects occupied the space and interaction between humans and art. Due to natural materials quickly deteriorating, museums exploited the necessity of photography and video which distance land art form conceptual art. (Unmuseum, 2010)
Fig 21. Monkey Biomorph (2010)
Fig 22. Nasca trapezoid (2010)
Fig 23. Nasca Lines (2010)
Fauvist artists explored painting using colour and thickly applied paint. Artist such as; Maurice de Vlaminck, Andre Derain and Albert Marquet followed the fauvist style. (Visual Arts Cork, s.d)
Fig 24. Landscape near Martigues (1913)
Fig 25. Turning Road (1905)
George Braque was inspired by Cezanne’s geometric style landscapes. Braque started to work in the cubist style which can be seen in his works – L’Estque. Picasso also imitated Cezannes style which is clear in his views of Horta Del Ebro in Spain. French artist Louis Vauxelles referred to his expression ‘bizarreries cubiques’ to explain the style, which led to the word cubsim. (Visual Arts Cork, s.d)
Fig 26. The Reservoir (1909)
Fig 27. The Church of Carrieres-Saint-Denis (1909)
John Cosntable was born and lived in Suffolk. He is well known for his countryside landscapes which he creates in Suffolk. He would sketch outside in the country surroundings and then turn to the studio to paint. He was a self-taught artist and developed slowly. Constable was inspired by Dutch artists such as Jacob Van Rvisdael. While he was alive his paintings weren’t very popular n England, but became more valuable after his death. (National Gallery, 2016)
Fig 28. The White Horse (1819)
Fig 29. Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows (1830)
Fig 30. The Opening of Waterloo Bridge (1817)
Claude Gelle was born in France but left in 1612 for Germany and then settled in Rome, where he became a studio assistant for Agostina Tassi – a landscape artist. (National Gallery, 2016) He visited Naples and returned to Franc before permanently settling in Rome in 1628. He sketched in the Roman countryside and then completed his paintings using oil paints in the studio. (Claude Lorrain, 2016)
Claude recorded his compositions in drawings, now in the British Museum, to prevent pastiches being sold. Claude was inspired by artist such as El Shimmer and Annibale Carracci. He was an artist of the Baroque era, and is best known for his ‘ideal’ landscape painting. His landscapes capture beauty within nature and classical concepts, with his paintings often containing classical ruins and classically dressed figures. His source of his inspiration is the countryside around Rome and the remains of ancient Rome in the classical period. Claude’s use of light in his painting were particular influential. (Britannica, 2010)
Fig 31. Seaport with the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba (1648)
Fig 32. Aeneas’s Farewell to Dido in Carthago (1676)
Fig 33. Harbour with Villa Medici (1637)
George Shaw was born in Coventry in 1966. He studied Fine Art at Sheffield polytechnic and then gained a MA in painting at the Royal College of Art London. Shaw was nominated for the Turner prize in 2011. He is known for his highly detailed approach to suburban subject matter. His favourite medium is umbral enamel paints (most commonly used for toy painting such as aeroplanes and trains). (National Gallery, 2016)
Recent work – ‘Back to Nature’
Shaw has recently had residency at the National Gallery in London and finally completed his exhibition called ‘Back to Nature’.
He has combined all activities that are conducted within the woods concentrating on all things dirty and dangerous, which is then juxtaposed with nature in the woods. You can see that his paintings are inspired by other artist work within the gallery. He creates an essence of mythological spirits by using objects in his paintings and the eery way that he paints, which closely relate to Cezanne Bathers, Velazquez’s Venus and other great nudes. Traditionally woods and fields are places of desire and dalliance. Within Shaw’s paintings and his residency at the gallery he plays on the softness and metaphorical meanings behind other paintings in the gallery e.g. Correggio’s – The School of Love painting shows Venus, Mercury and Cupid in a leafy environment. Shaw’s painting also called ‘The School of Love’, shows a dirty old mattress in the corner of the woods. The work investigates the idea of a more literal, modern day meaning that he has tried to portray in contrast to Correggio’s work. Perhaps due to modern day art and understanding of the world in a less classical and mystical beliefs.
The Renaissance artist, Giovanni Bellini, painted Saint Peter being hacked to death in a forest. Shaw’s painting has blood stained (red paint) trees, abandoned clothes and imitations of violence, which create a more provoking piece to presume danger or death than in Bellini’s work.
What intrigues me is that he has adopted the style of working like the more classical and renaissance painting but he creates a modern day twist of contemporary art.
Shaw paintings capture the wood as it is. When we walk through the woods, or a landscape we reflect on it with editing out the bottles and beer cans. He crates a scene where we as humans are part of the nature, stains of lust and violence str pointed in the forest now as much as they were during the Renaissance period. (The Guardian, 2016)
After researching I decided to pay a trip to the gallery to visit George Shaw’s work – (will be on next blog post)
Sarah Woodfine is a trained sculptor who focuses on landscape, architecture and optical illusions. She explores imaginary worlds that come between the familiar and fantastical and constructs self contained 3D worlds and uses architectural models and children’s toys, such as cut out card castles. She crates an element of gothic darkness in her work which is achieved by her heavily and precise drawn pencil marks. (Wimbledon College of Arts, 2016)
All elements of the sculptures are drawn in pencil with perfect precision and clarity that reflect reality but are also obsessive and dream like. The scenes that she creates are made up of fragments and clues which intrigue viewers and allows the viewer to interpret their own stories in response to the piece. Her work has been noticed as an independent art form rather than just a stage of development in art.
Woodfine’s recent work – ‘Forever and ever. Pencil on paper on aluminium, 2015’ touches on our mainstream ideas about moral behaviour – what is good, right, desirable and true and our interactions or beliefs. These ‘drawing sculptures’ are drawn realistically but also create an imaginary scene. the drawings create distortion with natural elements.
The viewer witnesses a medieval scientific image where broken branches become serpents, a snake becomes a rope and human hair reconstructs itself like on the head of medusa. (Wall Street International, 2015)
Fig 34. Untitled (branch) II (2015)
Fig 35. We can hardly imagine how much the angels love the truly chaste (2015)
Fig 36. Recipe for a kiss of shame (2012)
Fig 37. Crypt (2010)
When researching Woodfine I found out that she is the course leader at Wimbledon College of Art for sculpture. Even though I am studying her during my drawing unit, it excites me for the opportunity to take a twist on drawing, to crate something sculptural so I can combine the 2. I have started to enjoy the course more since I have been working harder to create a deeper sense of understanding and trying to expand my creativity. I am eager to test the boundaries of working on a ‘surface’ for my drawing.
Further research into Woodfine and I came across collaborations that she had completed in 2006 with a group of people who are experiencing mental health issues. Woodfine ran a workshop with the participants based on the creative theme of fantastical terrain of the night. They experimented with the transformation of drawing into pop-ups, model landscapes and theatre sets. The final photographic works play on the apparent three-dimensionality of these dreamlike worlds. From eerie forests glittering darkly in the moonlight to bats swarming around a gothic castle, from prowling urban cats to peaceful country scenes, the work reveals personal tales about what lies in the night.
The final works, alongside drawings and objects made during the project, were exhibited at the Digby Stuart Chaplaincy, Roehampton, June 2006. (Victoria & Albert Museum, 2005)
Figure 21. Jarnogz and Dreamstime (2010) Monkey Biomorph [photograph; A giant monkey biomorph on the Nasca desert plain] http://www.unmuseum.org/nazca.htm (Accessed on 28 December 2017)
Figure 22. Way, M. (2010) Nasca trapezoid [photograph; A Nasca trapezoid, looking like a runway, seems to invite the observation aircraft to land] At: http://www.unmuseum.org/nazca.htm (Accessed on 28 December 2017)
Figure 23. Way, M. (2010) Nasca Lines [photograph; The Nasca lines were created by clearing the darkened pampa stones to either side and exposing the lighter sand underneath] At: http://www.unmuseum.org/nazca.htm (Accessed on 28 December 2017)
I was feeling a bit pessimistic about setting up some still life’s. I have always struggled to set up an ‘interesting’ still life and what is an ‘interesting’ composition?! I set up and photographed some still life and was not all excited by the,. I decided to grasp Morandi’s ideas and concepts better, I went onto photoshop and masked the lettering of the objects, almost their identity as an object had disappeared. I was so surprised by my reaction to this as I was only playing around but I really like the effect it has created. I like the unpredictability of the marks that are made on the computer, as its hard to control the mouse. The edges of each object aren’t completely straight. I have followed the shades of the objects with the colours I have used on pgotoshop. Im actually pleased and excited of how I can use this in the next stages.
objects identity gone
following shades of colour – light/dark
The above points are what are I picked up on in Morandi’s work.
The difference with my experiments and Morandi’s work is that my images look very flat. This maybe just because its on the computer.
I have also completed some experimental work directly onto printed out photographs of the still life set ups. I found this really fun to do. I took the same approach as I did when using photoshop. I like the fact that I have kept some of the objects as they are and not painted over. I would quite like to use these experiments further into the next lot of drawings and see how I can use them to perhaps layer drawings and photographs together.